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According to later studies, the fire broke out in the attic of the cathedral at The smoke detectors immediately signaled the fire to a cathedral employee, who did not summon the fire brigade but instead sent a cathedral guard to investigate.
Instead of going to the correct attic, the guard was sent to the wrong location, to the attic of the adjoining sacristy, and reported there was no fire.
The guard telephoned his supervisor, who did not immediately answer. About fifteen minutes later the error was discovered, whereupon the guard's supervisor told him to go to the correct location.
The fire brigade was still not notified. By the time the guard had climbed the three hundred steps to the cathedral attic the fire was well advanced.
The spire of the cathedral collapsed at , bringing down some tonnes of stone and lead. The firefighters inside were ordered back down. By this time the fire had spread to the north tower, where the eight bells were located.
The firefighters concentrated their efforts in the tower. They feared that, if the bells fell, they could wreck the tower, and endanger the structure of the other tower and the whole cathedral.
They had to ascend a stairway threatened by fire, and to contend with low water pressure for their hoses. As other firefighters watered the stairway and the roof, a team of twenty climbed up the narrow stairway of the south tower, crossed to the north tower, lowered hoses to be connected to fire engines outside the cathedral, and sprayed water on the fire beneath the bells.
By , they were finally able to bring the fire under control. Since , France's cathedrals including Notre-Dame have been owned by the state, which is self-insured.
Some costs might be recovered through insurance coverage if the fire is found to have been caused by contractors working on the site.
AXA also provided insurance coverage for some of the relics and artworks in the cathedral. President Emmanuel Macron said approximately firefighters helped to battle the fire.
One firefighter was seriously injured and two police officers were hurt during the blaze. An ornate tapestry woven in the early s is going on public display for only the third time in recent decades.
The decoration was rescued from Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral after the fire. For the first time in more than years, the Christmas mass was not hosted at the cathedral on 25 December , due to the ongoing restoration work after the fire.
Immediately after the fire, President Macron promised that Notre-Dame would be restored, and called for the work to be completed within five years.
President Macron suggested he was open to a "contemporary architectural gesture". Even before the competition rules were announced, architects around the world offered suggestions: the proposals included a meter spire made of carbon fibre, covered with gold leaf; a roof built of stained glass; a greenhouse; a garden with trees, open to the sky; and a column of light pointed upwards.
French culture minister Franck Riester promised that the restoration "will not be hasty. In October , the French government announced that the first stage of reconstruction, the stabilising of the structure against collapse, would take until the end of Reconstruction could not begin before early President Macron announced that he hoped the reconstructed Cathedral could be finished by Spring , in time for the opening of the Summer Olympics.
The first task of the restoration is the removal of — tonnes of melted metal tubes, the remains of the scaffolding, which remained on the top after the fire, and could still fall onto the vaults and cause the collapse of the structure.
This stage began in February and continued through April A large crane, eighty-four metres high, was put in place next to the cathedral to help remove the scaffolding.
On 15 March , the dismantling and removal of the melted scaffolding from the cathedral roof and interior was halted, due to the health and safety restrictions caused by the COVID pandemic.
Reconstruction resumed, with social distancing, on 27 April On 10 April , the Archbishop of Paris, Michel Aupetit , and a handful of participants, all in protective clothing, performed a Good Friday service inside the cathedral.
A new phase of the restoration commenced on 8 June Two teams of workers began descending into the roof to remove the tangle of tubes of the old scaffolding melted by the fire.
The workers will use saws to cut up the forty thousand pieces of scaffolding, weighing altogether two hundred tons, which will be carefully lifted out of the roof by an eighty-meter tall crane.
The 19th-century spire was destroyed in the fire. The rooster reliquary atop the spire. It was found lightly damaged in the rubble after the fire.
The towers were the last major element of the cathedral to be constructed. The south tower was built first, between and , and the north tower between and The newer north tower is slightly larger, as can be seen when they are viewed from directly in front of the church.
The contrefort or buttress of the north tower is also larger. The north tower was accessible to visitors by a stairway, whose entrance was on the north side of the tower.
The stairway has steps, and has a stop at the Gothic hall at the level of the rose window, where visitors could look over the parvis and see a collection of paintings and sculpture from earlier periods of the cathedral's history.
The ten bells of the cathedral are located in the south tower. A lead-roofed water reservoir between the two towers — behind the colonnade and the gallery and before the nave and the pignon gable — provides water for firefighting.
The original spire was constructed in the 13th century, probably between and It was battered, weakened and bent by the wind over five centuries, and finally was removed in The entire spire weighed tonnes.
In front of each group is a symbol representing one of the four evangelists: a winged ox for Saint Luke,  a lion for Saint Mark, an eagle for Saint John and an angel for Saint Matthew.
Just days prior to the fire, the statues were removed for restoration. The rooster weathervane atop the spire contained three relics: a tiny piece from the Crown of Thorns in the cathedral treasury, and relics of Saint Denis and Saint Genevieve , patron saints of Paris.
They were placed there in by Archbishop Jean Verdier , to protect the congregation from lightning or other harm. The rooster with relics intact was recovered in the rubble shortly after the fire.
The martyr Saint Denis , holding his head, over the Portal of the Virgin. The Gothic cathedral was a liber pauperum , a "poor people's book", covered with sculptures vividly illustrating biblical stories, for the vast majority of parishioners who were illiterate.
The sculpture of the right portal shows the coronation of the Virgin Mary , and the left portal shows the lives of saints who were important to Parisians, particularly Saint Anne , the mother of the Virgin Mary.
The exteriors of cathedrals and other Gothic churches were also decorated with sculptures of a variety of fabulous and frightening grotesques or monsters.
These included the gargoyle , the chimera , a mythical hybrid creature which usually had the body of a lion and the head of a goat, and the Strix or stryge, a creature resembling an owl or bat , which was said to eat human flesh.
The strix appeared in classical Roman literature; it was described by the Roman poet Ovid , who was widely read in the Middle Ages, as a large-headed bird with transfixed eyes, rapacious beak, and greyish white wings.
The gargoyles , which were added in about , had a more practical purpose. They were the rain spouts of the cathedral, designed to divide the torrent of water which poured from the roof after rain, and to project it outwards as far as possible from the buttresses and the walls and windows where it might erode the mortar binding the stone.
To produce many thin streams rather than a torrent of water, a large number of gargoyles were used, so they were also designed to be a decorative element of the architecture.
The rainwater ran from the roof into lead gutters, then down channels on the flying buttresses, then along a channel cut in the back of the gargoyle and out of the mouth away from the cathedral.
Amid all the religious figures, some of the sculptural decoration was devoted to illustrating medieval science and philosophy. The central pillar of the central door of Notre-Dame features a statue of a woman on a throne holding a sceptre in her left hand, and in her right hand, two books, one open symbol of public knowledge , and the other closed esoteric knowledge , along with a ladder with seven steps, symbolizing the seven steps alchemists followed in their scientific quest of trying to transform ordinary metals into gold.
The stained glass windows of Notre-Dame, particularly the three rose windows , are among the most famous features of the cathedral.
The west rose window, over the portals, was the first and smallest of the roses in Notre-Dame. It is 9.
None of the original glass remains in this window; it was recreated in the 19th century. The north rose was created in about , and the south rose in about The south rose in the transept is particularly notable for its size and artistry.
It is The south rose has 94 medallions, arranged in four circles, depicting scenes from the life of Christ and those who witnessed his time on earth.
The inner circle has twelve medallions showing the twelve apostles. During later restorations, some of these original medallions were moved to circles farther out.
The next two circles depict celebrated martyrs and virgins. The fourth circle shows twenty angels, as well as saints important to Paris, notably Saint Denis , Margaret the Virgin with a dragon, and Saint Eustace.
The third and fourth circles also have some depictions of Old Testament subjects. The third circle has some medallions with scenes from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew which date from the last quarter of the 12th century.
These are the oldest glass in the window. Above the rose was a window depicting Christ triumphant seated in the sky, surrounded by his Apostles.
Below are sixteen windows with painted images of Prophets. The south rose had a difficult history. In it was damaged by the settling of the masonry walls, and not restored until — It was seriously damaged in the French Revolution of Rioters burned the residence of the archbishop, next to the cathedral, and many of the panes were destroyed.
The window was entirely rebuilt by Viollet-le-Duc in He rotated the window by fifteen degrees to give it a clear vertical and horizontal axis, and replaced the destroyed pieces of glass with new glass in the same style.
The window today contains both medieval and 19th century glass. In the s, after three decades of debate, it was decided to replace many of the 19th-century grisaille windows in the nave designed by Viollet-le-Duc with new windows.
The new windows, made by Jacques Le Chevallier , are without human figures and use abstract grisaille designs and colour to try to recreate the luminosity of the cathedral's interior in the 13th century.
The fire left the three great medieval rose windows essentially intact, but with some damage. The crypt of Notre-Dame is located below the nave and choir.
It should not be confused with the Archeological Crypt which is outside of the cathedral underneath the Parvis.
It is not currently open to the public. The organ was dedicated in In , Charles Mutin modified and added several stops ; in , an electric blower was installed.
An extensive restoration and cleaning was carried out by Joseph Beuchet in Between and , the mechanical action with Barker levers was replaced with an electric action by Jean Hermann, and a new organ console was installed.
In autumn , the electric combination system was disconnected due to short-circuit risk. A new console was installed, using the stop knobs, pedal and manual keyboards, foot pistons and balance pedals from the Jean Hermann console.
Between and , Bertrand Cattiaux and Pascal Quoirin restored, cleaned, and modified the organ. The current organ has stops ranks on five manuals and pedal, and more than 8, pipes.
Coupure Chamade. Sostenuto for all manuals and the pedal. Cancel buttons for each division. Replay system. The cathedral has ten bells.
The bourdon , called Emmanuel, weighing at 13 tonnes  and tuned to F sharp, has accompanied major historical events since its 15th-century casting, [ citation needed ] such as the coronation of French kings, papal visits, and the end of conflicts such as World War I and World War II.
It also rings in times of sorrow like for the funerals of the French heads of state, tragedies such as the terrorist attacks on 11 September ,  and on special holidays like Christmas , Easter , and Ascension.
Four bells replaced those destroyed in the French Revolution. Placed at the top of the North Tower in , these ring daily for the Angelus and the chiming of the hours.
In , a carillon of three bells in the spire with two chimes that linked to the monumental clock were put in place and another three bells were positioned in the structure of Notre-Dame, so that they could be heard inside.
These are mute, although a project is planned to restore the Carillon to its former glory. The four bells that were put in place in are stored, as of February About a year later, a new set of eight bells for the North Tower of Notre-Dame was produced, along with a Grand Bell for the South Tower, just as there were originally before most were destroyed during the French Revolution.
The construction of bells was done with accuracy and precision to obtain the desired sound and the work was entrusted to two separate companies, one in France for the eight bells and one in Belgium for the Grand Bell.
Each of the new bells is named to pay tribute to saints and others who have shaped the life of Paris and the Notre-Dame. Emmanuel is accompanied by another large bell in the south tower called Marie.
At six tonnes and playing G Sharp, Marie is the second largest bell in the cathedral. Marie is also called a Little Bourdon petite bourdon or a drone bell because it is located alongside Emmanuel in the south tower.
Built in a foundry in The Netherlands, it has engravings distinctive from the other bells. The phrases "Je vous salue Marie," in French, and "Via viatores quaerit," in Latin, which mean "Hail Mary" where the bell gets its name from the Virgin Mary and "The way is looking for travellers".
Below the phrase is an image of the Baby Jesus and his parents surrounded by stars and a relief with the Adoration of the Magi.
It is in charge of the Small Solennel, which is similar to the Great Solennel except that the ringing peal starts with the bourdon and the eight bells in the north tower.
This rings only on 1 January New Year's Day at the stroke of midnight and it replaces Emmanuel for international events.
Like Emmanuel, the bells are used to mark moments such as the arrival at the Cathedral of the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.
In the North Tower, there are eight bells varying in size. Gabriel is the largest bell; it weighs four tonnes and plays an A sharp.
Built in a bell foundry outside Paris in , it also chimes the hour through the day. Like Emmanuel and Marie, Gabriel is used to mark specific events.
It is used mainly for masses on Sundays in ordinary times and some solemnities falling during the week in the Plenum North.
It shows 40 circular lines representing the 40 days Jesus spent in the desert and the 40 years of Moses' crossing the Sinai. Named after two saints: St.
Anne , Mary's mother, and St. It has three circular lines that represent the Holy Trinity and three theological virtues. Like Emmanuel, Marie and Gabriel, Anne-Genevieve is used to mark specific moments such as the opening of the doors to the Palm Sunday mass or the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.
Denis is the third largest bell in the North Tower and fifth largest bell in the cathedral. It is named after St. Denis , the martyr who was also the first bishop of Paris around the year ; it weighs 2 tonnes and plays a C sharp.
This bell includes the third phrase of the Angelus, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord". There are seven circular lines representing the gifts of the Holy Spirit and the seven Sacraments.
Marcel is the fourth largest bell in the North Tower and sixth largest bell in the cathedral. It plays a D sharp and weighs 1.
It is named after Saint Marcel, the ninth bishop of Paris, known for his tireless service to the poor and sick in the fifth century.
The bell that bears his name has engraved upon it the fourth sentence of the Angelus, "Be it done unto me according to Thy word". Stephen , the first Christian martyr.
It plays an E sharp and weighs 1. It plays an F and weighs 1. It has two silver stripes above the skirt and one silver stripe above the nameplate.
This bell is used for weddings and sometimes chimes the hour replacing Gabriel, most likely on a chime called the Ave Maria.
Maurice is the seventh largest bell in the North Tower and second smallest in the cathedral. It is named after Maurice de Sully , the bishop of Paris who laid the first stone for the construction of the cathedral.
It includes the inscription, "Pray for us, Holy Mother of God". It plays a G sharp and weighs one tonne. It has two gray stripes below the nameplate.
This bell is used for weddings. Jean Marie is the smallest bell of the cathedral. It plays an A sharp and weighs 0. It has a small gray stripe above the skirt.
This bell is also used for weddings. The first clocks used at Notre-Dame were clepsydras. These were used to tell the hours, which were marked by striking bells.
In the 14th century Notre-Dame had two clepsydras running simultaneously, one in the cloister and one in the church itself. A lay chamberlain was responsible to keep the clocks filled with water and to notify a churchwarden when it was time to strike the bells for the hour.
Such a job had to be ongoing 24 hours a day. In , MM. Guillot de Montjoye and Jean-Bernard de Vienne, canons and members of Notre-Dame's factory counsel , donated a mechanical clock to the cathedral.
The movement was installed in a glass cabinet in the gallery beneath the north rose window and rang three bells placed outside above the north portal.
Between and , the clock and the three bells were moved to the north tower. During Viollet-le-Duc's restoration in the 19th century, a new clock was made.
The Collin-Wagner movement, measuring two meters 6. This controlled four dormer clock faces visible on the transept roofs, two on each side.
This clock was destroyed in the fire. Olivier Chandez, who had been responsible for the upkeep of Notre-Dame's clock, described the find as "almost a miracle.
It was nationalized on 2 November and since then has been the property of the French state. Legislation from and clarified that cathedrals were maintained at the expense of the French government.
This was reaffirmed in the law on the separation of Church and State , designating the Catholic Church as having the exclusive right to use it for religious purposes in perpetuity.
Notre-Dame is one of seventy historic churches in France with this status. The archdiocese is responsible for paying the employees, for security, heating and cleaning, and for ensuring that the cathedral is open free to visitors.
The archdiocese does not receive subsidies from the French state. A view of Notre-Dame from Tour Montparnasse. Virgin of Paris , 14th century.
Tympanum of the Last Judgment. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Notre-Dame of Paris. Cathedral in Paris. Monument historique.
Main article: Notre-Dame de Paris fire. Main article: Spire of Notre-Dame de Paris. See also: List of sculptures in Notre-Dame de Paris.
Gargoyles were the rainspouts of the Cathedral. Allegory of alchemy , central portal. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: List of bells in Notre-Dame de Paris.
South rose window of Notre-Dame de Paris. Flying buttresses of Notre-Dame. Close look of the details on the Tympanum of the Last Judgment France portal Catholicism portal Architecture portal.
It appears that Bishop Sully entirely dug out the foundations of the early Christian basilica so as to found Notre-Dame on the bedrock under the island.
It is thought that the population of Paris grew from 25, in to 50, in , making it the largest European city outside of Italy. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Paris Digest.
Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 15 September Journal of the Southwest. The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 4 July Le Point in French.
Archived from the original on 9 August Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 16 April National Geographic.
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